This ARC-funded project aims to challenge long-held ideas about empire and the role of subject peoples. It endeavours to question the view that resistance was the obvious way in which colonised peoples responded to European domination. It is designed to explore the proposition that colonised peoples engaged with empire, its structures and values in more complex and various ways than has been assumed. Individuals and communities worked inside the structures of imperial rule and identified opportunities whereby they could improve their lives and work towards their emancipation and that of their communities. This project will focus on the entire period of French rule in Algeria (1830 to 1962).