As a medical physicist, I use physics and clinical research to improve outcomes for cancer patients. My research utilises ongoing developments in medical imaging and machine learning to improve cancer targeting and reduce treatment side effects for radiotherapy. I work with a multidisciplinary team on a range of research projects including; assessing the benefits of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other imaging modalities for radiotherapy treatment planning and delivery; using advanced radiation dosimeters for treatment verification; and investigating the impact of uncertainty in radiotherapy delivery by modelling its effect on radiobiology and patient outcome.
- The use of data mining and machine learning to improve treatment decisions for current patients based on experience and outcomes of previous patients.
- The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiotherapy, especially for the purposes of adaptive radiotherapy.
- The development of the Australian MRI-Linac: The next generation cancer therapy equipment that enables changing patient anatomy and physiology to be seen during radiotherapy.
- Understanding the impact of uncertainty in defining treatment volumes for both cancer and healthy tissue.
- Understanding the impact uncertainty in delivering radiotherapy and how we detect these uncertainties with both current and novel radiation dosimeters.
Fields of Research (FoR)Medical physics, Radiation therapy
During my undergraduate degree and PhD, I developed an interest in radiobiological modelling. My initial work investigated optimisation algorithms in radiobiological modelling for Intensity Modulated RadioTherapy (IMRT). Currently, I enjoy investigating the different factors (see research interests) that influence the way radiation is delivered for treatment, and modelling the impact these changes may have on the radiobiology and patient...view more
During my undergraduate degree and PhD, I developed an interest in radiobiological modelling. My initial work investigated optimisation algorithms in radiobiological modelling for Intensity Modulated RadioTherapy (IMRT). Currently, I enjoy investigating the different factors (see research interests) that influence the way radiation is delivered for treatment, and modelling the impact these changes may have on the radiobiology and patient outcome. I lead the medical physics group at the Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research which includes medical physics staff at Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, as well as postdoctoral research fellows, PhD and undergraduate students. I am involved in the Australian MRI-Linac program which is being developed at the Ingham Institute. I also lead the Computer Assisted Theragnostics (AusCAT) team which is working to link distributed datasets to develop prognostic models for radiotherapy, particularly for situations where randomised clinical trial evidence is limited.
- O'Brien, R., Keall, P., Nguyen, D. T., Siva, S., Reynolds, T., Kumar, S., Holloway, L. Reducing the impact of radiation on the heart for cancer and cardiac disease patients. National Health and Medical Research Council Synergy Grant. 5 years. 5,000,000 (2022).
- Holloway, L., et al. Australian Cancer Data Network: distributed learning from clinical data. ARDC - Australian Research Data Commons: ARDC Platform Program Grant. 2.5 years. $957,858 (Jan 2021 - June 2023).
- Huang, X., Holloway, L., Field, M., Vinod, S.and Keall, P. Analyzing lung cancer guideline compliance with patient treatment outcomes using deep learning. Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research. 1 year. $20,000 (2020).
- Haidar, A., Field, M., Holloway, L., Aly, F., Carolan, M.and Sykes, J., Ensemble Learning in Cancer Related Applications. Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research: Data and Cancer Research Fund. 1 year. $25,000 (2020)
- Haidar, A., Field, M., Holloway, L., Aly, F., Batumalai, V., Kaadan, N., Huang, X., Carolan, M.and Sykes, J. Unsupervised Machine Learning for Detecting and Fixing Variations in Cancer Patients Medical Records. Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research: Data and Cancer Research Fund. 1 year. $15,000 (2020).
- Keall, P., O’Brien, R., Nguyen, D.T., Haworth, A., Kuncic, Z., Booth, J., Eade, T., Grieve, S. and Holloway, L. Cancer imaging and targeted radiation therapy: Innovation, discovery and translation. Cancer Institute NSW and Cancer Council NSW: Translational Program Grant. 5 years. $3,750,000 (April 2019 – March 2024).
- Holloway, L. and A. Sowmya, Learning from and improving target volume delineation in radiotherapy. UNSW Biomedical Seed Fund. $443,588 (2018).
- Barton, M., Jorm, L., Delaney, G., Holloway, L., Girgis, A., Pearson, S., Chau, B., Goldstein, D., Crowe, P., Liauw, W., Levi, C., Churches, T. and Vajdic, C. CaVa - a platform for research into cancer clinical variation. UNSW 2018 Research Infrastructure Scheme: Supporting Collaborative Research: Ingham Institute, LIverpool Hospital, UNSW Medicine Kensington Campus, POWH, St George Hospital. $220,426 (2018).
- Metcalfe, P., Rozenfeld, A., Petasessa, M., Liney, G., Holloway, L., Thwaites, D. and Oborn, B. High Resolution dosimetry of MR image-guided radiation therapy. 2017 NSW Cancer Council: Project. $429,000 (2017).
- Barton, M., Vial, P., Kuncic, Z., Keall, P., Peng, G., Metcalfe, P., Greer, P., Holloway, L. and Blake, S. X-Ray detectors for Radiotherapy Research. CINSW: Ingham Institute and Liverpool Cancer Therapy Centre. $227,250 (2017).
- Walker, A., Holloway, L., and Liney, G. Ensuring geometric accuracy of MRI in radiotherapy and the Australian MRI-Linac. South Western Sydney Local Health District. $45,000 (2016).
- Jameson, M. and Holloway, L. Implementation of MRI based adaptive radiotherapy utilising the TRAC tool. South Western Sydney Local Health District. $45,000 (2016).
- Holloway, L., Haworth, A., Dowling, J., Ebert, M., Jameson, M., Kron, T., Vinod, S., Leong, T., Greer, P.B., and Creutzberg, C. Reducing the greatest uncertainty in radiotherapy. NHMRC: Liverpool Hospital, Ingham, TROG, CSIRO Brisbane. $594,197.4 (2016).
- Holloway, L. and Brink, C. MRI radiomics for the purpose of radiotherapy. Odense University Hospital 'Internationaliseringpuljen'. $24,000 (2016).
- Ebert, M., J. Dowling, J. Denham, D. Joseph, S. Gulliford, Dearnaley, A. Haworth, L. Holloway, T. Kron, and P.B. Greer. Radiotherapy treatment for prostate cancer - a change in practice based on direct evidence for targeting and toxicity effects using real outcomes data. NHMRC. $535,546.90 (2015-2019).
- Holloway, L., Batamulai, V., Kumar, S., Vial, P., Goozee, G., Cassapi, L., Lee, M., Forstner, D. South Western Sydney Local Health District. Academic Unit. Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres. $300,000 (2015).
- Thwaites, D., L. Holloway, A. Dekker, G. Delaney, M. Bailey, A. Ghose, S. Vinod, A. Miller, and F. Hegi-Johson. Rapid learning proof-of-concept for NSW radiotherapy: Linking and mining imaging and clinical data to support optimised decisions for NSW lung cancer patients. NSW Health Office for Health and Medical Research. $250,000 (2014).
- Thwaites, D., L. Holloway, S. Arumugam, S. Vinod, M. Lee, P. Vial, A. Rozenfeld, Y. deDeene, and P. Metcalfe. Do treatment delivery uncertainties limit the effectiveness of advanced technology radiotherapy treatments? Cancer Council. $359,167 (2014).
- Price, W.S.S., J.R. Aldrich-Wright, A. Hennessy, A.S. Sathasivan, A.M. Torres, G.P. Liney, L.C. Holloway, G. Delaney, B.A. Cornell, S.G. Bosi, M. Nyden, B.A. Messerle, C.H. Arns, M.B. Barton, D.J.E. Beves, J.B. Harper, S.R. Meikle, M.R. Bennett, R.M. Bourne, P.J. Keall, M.L. Johns, and E.O. Fridjonsson. Ultra-high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system for physical applications. University of Western Sydney School of Science and Health: University of Western Sydney School of Science and Health. $1,064,000 (2014).
- Min, M., M. Lee, D. Forstner, G.P. Liney, and L. Holloway. Evaluation of the role of magnetic resonance imaging in Mucosal Primary Head and Neck Cancer. RANZCR. $20,000 (2014).
- Lehmann, J., D. Thwaites, J. Ludbrook, A. Dekker, L. Holloway, and P.B. Greer. Rapid learning from datamining routine clinical datasets in radiotherapy: a pilot study to support optimised decisions for Newcastle NSCLC radiotherapy patients through datamining and modelling of local treatment experience and leveraging of models from other facilities. Hunter Cancer Research Alliance: Newcastle. $20,000 (2014).
- Holloway, L., G.P. Liney, V. Batumalai, E. Pogson, A. Walker, M. Yap, M. Boxer, G. Delaney, J. Sykes, R. Speight, and J. Dowling. Improving the ability to define breast radiotherapy treatment volumes. Ingham Institute. $10,000 (2014).
- Batumalai, V., G.P. Liney, L. Holloway, E.S. Koh, G. Delaney, J. Otton, and L. Thomas. Cardiac MRI in the assessment of cardiac dysfunction in breast cancer patients: a feasibility study. Ingham Institute:Douglas Partners Breast Cancer Grant Liverpool hospital. $10,000 (2014).
- Fahrig, R., P. Keall, and L. Holloway. MR-compatible linac gun for robotic linac adaptation. National Institute of Health, USA: Stanford University. $201,742 (2013-2014).
- Holloway, L., G. Delaney, P.E. Metcalfe, P. Vial, and E.S. Koh. Quantifying the impact of imaging choice for breast cancer radiotherapy. Cancer Australia and The National Breast Cancer Foundation: Project Grant. $391,596 (2012-2015).
- Price WS., B.S., Stait-Gardner T., Holloway L., Smee R., Delaney G., Torres A., Zheng G., Ghadirian B. MRI-based electron density mapping for radiotherapy treatment planning. University of Western Sydney School of Science and Health: Seed Funding. $9000 (2012).
- Keall, P.J., M. Jackson, A. Rozenfeld, M.B. Barton, P.B. Greer, C. Baldock, P.E. Metcalfe, D. Thwaites, Z. Kuncic, S. Bosi, E. Eslick, L. Holloway, and S. Downes. An adaptable and dedicated linear accelerator for medical radiation research. Australian Research Council: LIEF grant, $600,000 (2012).
- Vial, P., Z. Kuncic, P.B. Greer, C. Baldock, L. Holloway, M.B. Barton, S.A. Meikle, and S.A. Hodgkinson. A next generation detector for radiotherapy treatment verification with dual capability for simultaneous imaging and dosimetry. Cancer Council NSW: Research Equipment Grant. $336,125 (2011-2013).
- Vial, P., Z. Kuncic, P.B. Greer, C. Baldock, L. Holloway, M.B. Barton, and S.A. Meikle. Making radiotherapy safer and more accurate: Developing detector technology for the next generation in treatment verification systems. Cancer Institute NSW: Research Equipment Grant, $198,000.00 (2010).
- Holloway, L. Visit to Stanford University/Hospital and clinics to learn about the use of MRI in a radiation oncology environment and the implementation of cutting edge research in the clinic. Cancer Institute NSW: Clinical Study Grant. $20,000. (2010).
- Bachelor of Medical Physics (Hons)- University of Wollongong.
- Doctor of Philosophy – University of New South Wales.
Thesis title: Radiotherapy Optimisation: Biological and Physical Concepts.
- Certified Medical Physics Specialist – Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM)
- Holloway, L. (2022).The 2022 Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM) Distinguished Services Award.
- Begg, J., U. Jelen, B. Whelan, B. Dong, N. Roberts, G. Liney, and L. Holloway (2018). Best Poster prize for Radiotherapy for ‘Experimentally derived ion chamber magnetic field correction factors (kb)” at EPSM Conference in Adelaide, Australia.
- Arumugam, S., Cassapi, L., Goozee, G., Grand, M., Holloway, L., Sidhom, M., Truant, D., Udovitch, M., Wallis, A., Xing, A. (2016). NSW Health Quality Award for the category ‘Bob Leece Transforming Health Award’ for ‘Clinical implementation of SeedTracker for prostate SBRT’. This award is given across all NSW hospitals via a Health District and then state wide review process for the project best demonstrating technology translation to improve patient care and safety.
- Min, M., Liney, G., Forstner, D., Fowler, A., Holloway, L., Wijesekera, D., Gooneratne, D., Rai, R., Juresic, E., Choong, C., Bray, V., Lee, M. (2016). David Wigg prize in radiobiology for ‘Early Results of a Prospective Study Evaluating the Predictive Utility of Pre- Treatment Multi-Parametric MRI in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer Treated with Radiation Therapy’. The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists Annual Scientific Meeting. Gold Coast, Australia.
- Batumalai, V., Holloway, L., Liney, G., Rai, R., Boxer, M., G Delaney (2015). John A Koveleski Award for Professional Development award for abstract and poster ‘An Assessment of MRI Image Quality for Various Setup Positions used in Breast Radiotherapy’. International Society for MR Radiographers & Technologies (ISMRT) Annual Meeting. Toronto, Canada.
- Dundas, K., Pogson, E., Batumalai, V., Vial, P., Boxer, M., Yap, M.L., Koh, E., Delaney, G., Metcalfe, P., and Holloway, L. (2014). Best Presentation award for “Radiotherapy Planning as a Tool to Quantify the Impact of using MR as Imaging Choice for Breast Cancer Radiotherapy” NSW Radiation Therapists Research Meeting. Sydney, Australia
- Thwaites, D., Holloway, L., Dekker, A., Delaney, G., Bailey, M., Ghose, A., Vinod, S., Miller, A., Hegi-Johnson, F. (2014). Best Abstract Award for ‘Mining routine radiation oncology clinical datasets within a distributed rapid learning framework: the potential for supporting optimised clinical decisions’. The Cancer Institute Innovations Conference. Sydney, Australia.
- Barber, J., Yau, S., White, S., Sykes, J., Arumumgam, S., Holloway, L. and Thwaites, D. (2013). Varian prize for the best radiotherapy oral presentation for “The influence of high modulation on delivery accuracy for VMAT SABR beams”. Engineering and Physical Sciences in Medicine (EPSM) Conference. Perth, Australia.
- Jameson, M., Bailey, M., Foo, K., Holloway, L., Metcalfe, P. (2011). Best postgraduate presentation for “Methodology for assessment of impact of contouring variation on clinical trial design”. Engineering and Physical Sciences in Medicine (EPSM) Conference. Darwin, Australia.
- Deshpande, S., Vial, P., Goozee, G., and Holloway, L. (2010). Best poster award for “Ghosting effect in Siemens electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) for step and shoot IMRT dosimetry”. Engineering and Physical Sciences in Medicine (EPSM) Conference. Melbourne, Australia.
- Batumalai, V., Koh, E.S., Delaney, G., Holloway, L., and Jameson, M. (2009). Novartis prize for best clinical outcomes in breast cancer therapy “Variability in Clinical Target Volume Delineation for Tangential Breast Irradiation: Comparison between Radiation Oncologists and Radiation Therapists”. Combined Scientific Meeting Brisbane.
- Holloway, L. (2003). Australasian College of Physical Sciences and Engineering in Medicine’s Boyce Worthley Young Achiever Award.
- Holloway, L. (1999). Young investigator award at the 4th International Stereotactic Radiosurgery Congress.
- Holloway, L. (1999). Marie Curie prize for the best postgraduate research and presentation from the NSW Branch of the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine.
- Holloway, L. (1996). Becquerel prize for the best undergraduate research and presentation from the NSW Branch of the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine.
My Research Supervision
Areas of supervision
I have supervised 22 PhD students to completion along with a number of Honours and Master’s degree students undertaking research in the areas of adaptive radiotherapy, treatment planning, dose delivery uncertainty, radiation dosimetry, big data and data mining.
- Phillip Chlap: Automated Contour Quality Assurance for Radiotherapy Clinical Trials.
- Farhannah Aly: Outcome prediction modelling for the personalised treatment of older patients with head and neck cancer.
- Daniel Al Mouiee: Investigating the feasibility and optimisation of Federated learning systems in radiation therapy applications.
- Jarrad Begg: Investigation into physical and dosimetric properties of a high field inline MRI-Linac.
- ACPSEM Council Member.
- ACPSEM NSW/ACT Branch Vice-Chair.
- Associate Editor for Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine journal.
- Chair of the ACPSEM Artificial Intelligence Working Group.
- Honorary Senior Lecturer, Institute of Medical Physics, University of Sydney (2005 - current).
- I am involved in teaching medical physics and radiation oncology trainees within the radiation oncology department at Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres.
- Member of the expert panel for the review of the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM) Training Education And Progression (TEAP) requirements.
- I was involved in establishing the course content at the initiation of the radiobiology course at the University of Sydney as a component of the Master of Medical Physics degree program. Since then, I have taught a nine-hour block of lectures on an introduction to radiobiology and radiobiology modelling each year.
- I have taught a block of lectures in the dosimetry course in the medical physics Master of Medical Physics degree program at the University of Sydney since the initiation of the Master of Medical Physics degree program until 2013.
- I have generally given 2-3 lectures each year as part of the University of Wollongong Master of Medical Physics degree program. These lectures have included radiobiology, imaging, treatment planning and radiation safety.
- I taught the radiobiology course as part of the Medical Radiation Sciences course at the University of Sydney in 1999.
- I have taught a number of the Basic Sciences of Oncology lectures on different subjects including radiobiology modelling, basic interactions and treatment planning reporting.
- I wrote the Electronic Portal Imaging Detector section for the IAEA oncology remote learning multimedia CD.
- I recently gave a presentation on moving towards MRI-linacs looking at the factors to consider and potential systems for the University of Michigan state-wide training lectures for their radiation oncology registrars.
- I have been involved in the CSIRO STEM professionals in schools program since 2010 which links scientists and teachers to encourage the next generation of scientists. I have two partner teachers one at Liverpool girl’s high school where I provide support for teaching the medical physics HSC elective and one at Engadine West Primary school where I have facilitated a number of science activities in different science disciplines across the school.