Researcher

Professor Levon Michael Khachigian

My Expertise

Cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, cancer, transcriptional control, scientific method.

Field of Research (FoR)

Biography

Qualifications: BSc (Hons I) PhD DSc UNSW MIP (Law) UTS

Research Interests

Cardiovascular disease and cancer remain the most prevalent causes of morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of these and a myriad of other inflammatory, proliferative, migratory and autoimmune diseases are underpinned by molecular and cellular changes in our blood vessels. Professor Levon Khachigian’s research is uncovering key networks of transcriptional control...view more

Qualifications: BSc (Hons I) PhD DSc UNSW MIP (Law) UTS

Research Interests

Cardiovascular disease and cancer remain the most prevalent causes of morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of these and a myriad of other inflammatory, proliferative, migratory and autoimmune diseases are underpinned by molecular and cellular changes in our blood vessels. Professor Levon Khachigian’s research is uncovering key networks of transcriptional control and inducible gene-regulatory circuits that lead to vascular disease. Building on these mechanistic insights, his group is developing new experimental drugs that have the potential to treat a myriad of health problems, from cancer and arthritis through to eye and heart disease.

Levon heads the Vascular Biology and Translational Research Laboratory within the School of Medical Sciences, UNSW Faculty of Medicine.  His research program sits within UNSW Medicine’s Thematic Areas of Triple I (Infection, Immunity & Inflammation) and Cancer, and has two major objectives:

  1. To better understand how potentially harmful genes are controlled in vascular cells. This arm investigates signalling and transcriptional mechanisms of growth factor and pro-inflammatory cytokine-dependent gene expression, post-translational mechanisms that modify protein behaviour, isolation and characterization of new genes that are induced or repressed by acute vascular cell injury, and the molecular control of vascular cell migration and proliferation. The group has considerable expertise in animal models of neointima formation, angiogenesis, tumour growth, myocardial ischemia and inflammatory disease.
  2. To develop novel vascular therapeutic agents. The lab is harnessing the outcomes of its fundamental research by pioneering the development of novel “anti-gene” (e.g. DNAzyme, siRNA, microRNA) and “gene-therapeutic” strategies targeting regulatory genes in experimental vascular diseases.  The group is also actively developing new small molecule pharmacologic agents. This involves in-house laboratory research and strategic national and international collaborations with a range of clinical and preclinical specialists, global contract research organisations, leading industrial medicinal chemists and drug development consultants.

Levon received his PhD from UNSW in 1993 and after postdoctoral training in vascular pathobiology at Harvard Medical School returned to the UNSW Centre for Vascular Research in 1996 where he established an independent research group. He was appointed Professor in 2004.

Broad Research Areas    

  • Cardiology and Vascular Disease
  • Cell Biology and Gene Regulation
  • Pathology
  • Cancer
  • Inflammation

Specific Research Keywords    

  • Atherogenesis and Inflammation
  • Cardiology and Vascular Disease
  • Genetics
  • Signalling and Transcription
  • Molecular Mechanisms

Teaching Interests    

  • Molecular pathobiology
  • Molecular biology, signalling and transcriptional control
  • Atherosclerosis and post-angioplasty restenosis
  • Inflammation
  • Angiogenesis
  • Cancer
  • Drug discovery

Funding Sources    

  • National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)
  • Australian Research Council (ARC)

Prizes and Distinctions

  • 2017 NHMRC Senior Principal Research Fellowship
  • 2016 Scopus Eureka Prize for Excellence in International Scientific Collaboration (FANTOM5 consortium)
  • 2012 Distinguished Researcher Award, Australian Vascular Biology Society
  • 2010 The Royal Society of Victoria Research Medal
  • 2010 Premier’s Award for Excellence in Translational Cancer Research
  • 2010 Business Events Sydney Ambassador
  • 2009 NHMRC Australia Fellowship
  • 2009 Rotary International Vocational Excellence Award
  • 2007 OSMR Eureka James Callachor Prize for Medical Research
  • 2006 GlaxoSmithKline Award for Research Excellence
  • 2006 Wakefield Medal for Research Supervision
  • 2005 Khwarizmi International Award for Science and Technology
  • 2005 NHMRC Senior Principal Research Fellowship
  • 2004 Australasian Science Prize
  • 2003 C'wealth Health Minister's Award for Excellence in Health and Medical Research
  • 2003 Gottschalk Medal, Australian Academy of Science
  • 2003 Eureka Prize for Scientific Research
  • 2003 Alumni Award for Achievement
  • 2002 NHMRC Principal Research Fellowship
  • 2002 RT Hall Prize, Cardiac Society of Australia & New Zealand
  • 2001 Eppendorf Award for Young Australian Researcher (now Millennium Science Award)
  • 2001 AMGEN Medical Researcher Award
  • 2001 Young Tall Poppy Award
  • 1999 NHMRC Research Fellowship
  • 1997 Glaxo-Wellcome Australia Research Award (NSW)
  • 1997 NHMRC R. Douglas Wright Research Fellowship
  • 1993 NHMRC C.J. Martin Fellowship
  • 1993 J. William Fulbright Award
  • 1993 Rotary Foundation International Ambassadorial Award
  • 1988 Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Trust Award for Young Australians

Society Past Presidencies

  • Australian Society for Medical Research (ASMR)
  • Australian Vascular Biology Society (AVBS)

Conference Organization

  • Chair, 15th International Vascular Biology Meeting, Sydney
  • Vascular Biology Section Chair & Conference Treasurer, 20th Congress of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Sydney

Publications

Billah M, Ridiandries A, Allahwala U, Mudaliar H, Dona A, Hunyor S, Khachigian LM, Bhindi R. Circulating mediators of remote ischemic preconditioning.  Oncotarget 2018; in press

Alhendi AMN, Patrikakis M, Daub CO, Kawaji H, Itoh M, de Hoon M, Carninci P, Hayashizaki Y, Arner E, Khachigian LM. Promoter usage and dynamics in vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to fibroblast growth factor-2 or interleukin-1β.  Scientific Reports 2018; 8:13164

Cai H, Cho EA, Li Y, Sockler J, Parish CR, Chong BH, Edwards J, Dodds TJ, Ferguson PM, Wilmott JS, Scolyer RA, Halliday GM, Khachigian LM.  Melanoma protective anti-tumor immunity activated by catalytic DNA.  Oncogene 2018; 37:5115-26

Cannistraci CV, Nieminen T, Nishi M, Khachigian LM, Viikila J, Laine M, Cianflone D, Maseri A, Keong YK, Bhindi R, Ammirati E. “Summer shift”: a potential effect of sunshine on the time onset of ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. Journal of the American Heart Association

Sheahan AV, Biankin AV, Parish CR, Khachigian LM. Targeted therapies in the management of locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer: a systematic review. Oncotarget 2018; 9:21613-21627

Khachigian LM. The yin and yang of YY1 in tumor growth and suppression. International Journal of Cancer 2018; 143:460-465

Buckler JN, Banwell MG, Kordbacheh F, Parish CR, Santiago FS, Khachigian LM.   Developing neolignans as pro-angiogenic agents: stereoselective total syntheses and preliminary biological evaluations of the four guaiacylglycerol 8-O-4′-coniferyl ethers.  ACS Omega 2017; 2: 7375-7388

Noguchi S, Arakawa T, Fukuda S, Furuno M, Hasegawa A, Hori F, Kato S, Kaida K, Kaiho A, Kanamori-Katayama M, Kawashima T, Kojima M, Kubosaki A, Manade R, Murata M, Nagao-Sato S, Nakazato K, Ninomiya N, Nishiyori-Sueki H, Noma S, Saijyo E, Saka A, Sakai M, Simon C, Suzuki N, Tagami M, Watanabe S, Yoshida S, Arner P, Axton R, Babina M, Baillie LM, Barnett T, Beckhouse A, Blumenthal A, Bodega B, Bonetti A, Briggs J, Brombacher F, Carlisle A, Clevers H, Davis C, Dietmar M, Dohi T, Edge A, Edinger M, Ehrlund A, Ekwall K, Endoh M, Enomoto H, Eslami A, Baglioni M, Fairbairn L, Farah-Carson M, Faulkner G, Ferrai C, Fisher M, Forrester L, Fujita R, Furusawa J, Geijtenbeek T, Gingeras T, Goldowitz D, Guhl S, Guler R, Gustincich S, Ha T, Hamaguchi M, Hara M, Hasegawa Y, Herlyn M, Heating P, Hitchens K, Hume D, Ikawa T, Ishizu Y, Kai C, Kawamoto H, Kawamura Y, Kempfle J, Kenna T, Kere J, Khachigian LM, Kitamura T, Klein S, Klinken P, Knox A, Kojima S, Koseki H, Koyasu S, Lee W, Lennartsson A, Mackay-Sim A, Mejhert N, Mizuno Y, Morikawa H, Morimoto M, Moro K, Morris K, Mothashi H, Mummery C, Nakachi Y, Nakahara F, Nakamura T, Nakamura Y, Nozaki T, Ogishima S, Ohkura N, Ohno H, Ohshima M, Okada M, Okazaki Y, Orlando V, Ovchinnikov D, Passier R, Patrikakis M, Pombo A, Pradhan-Bhatt S, Qin X, Rehli M, Rizzu P, Roy S, Sajantila A, Shimon S, Sato H, Satoh H, Savvi S, Saxena A, Schmidt C, Schneider C, Schulze-Tanzöl G, Schneemann A, Sheng G, Shin J, Sugiyama D, Sugiyama T, Summers K, Takahashi N, Takai J, Tanaka H, Tatsukawa H, Tomoiu A, Toyota H, van de Wetering M, van den Berg L, Verardo R, Vijayan D, Wells C, Winterinham L, Wolventang E, Yamaguchi Y, Yamamoto M, Yanagi-Mizuochi C, Yoneda M, Yonekura Y, Zhang P, Zucchelli S, Abugessaisa I, Arner E, Harshbarger J, Kondo A, Lassmann T, Lizio M, Sahin A, Sengstag T, Severin J, Shimoji H, Suzuki M, Kawai J, Suzuki H, Kondo N, Itoh M, Daub C, Kasukawa T, Carninci P, Kawaji H, Forrest A, Hayashizaki Y. FANTOM5 CAGE profiles of human and mouse samples. Scientific Data 2017;4:170112

Li Y, McRobb LS, Khachigian LM.  MicroRNA miR-191 targets the zinc finger transcription factor Egr-1 and suppresses intimal thickening after carotid injury.  International Journal of Cardiology 2016; 212:299-302

Li Y, McRobb LS, Khachigian LM.  Inhibition of intimal thickening after vascular injury with a cocktail of vascular endothelial growth factor and cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp peptide. International Journal of Cardiology 2016; 220:185-191

Khachigian LM. Early growth response-1 in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Journal of Molecular Medicine 2016; 94:747-53

Arner E, Daub CO, Vitting-Seerup K, Andersson RA, Lilje B, Drablos F, Lennartsson A, Rönnerblad M, Hrydziuszko O, Vitezic M, Freeman TC, Alhendi A, Arner P, Baillie JK, Beckhouse A, Bodega B, Briggs J, Brombacher F, Davis M, Detmar M, Ehrlund A, Endoh M, Eslami A, Fagiolini M, Fairbairn L, Faulkner GJ, Ferrai C, Fisher ME, Forrester L, Goldowitz D, Guler R, Ha T, Hara M, Herlyn M, Ikawa T, Kai C, Kawamoto H, Khachigian LM, et al. Transcribed enhancers lead waves of coordinated transcription in transitioning mammalian cells. Science 2015; 347:1010-4

Aitken S, Shigeyuki Magi S, Alhendi AMN, Itoh M, Kawaji H, Lassmann T, Daub CO, Erik Arner E, Carninci P, Forrest ARR, Hayashizak Y, FANTOM Consortium, Khachigian LM, Okada-Hatakeyama M, Semple CA. Transcriptional dynamics reveal critical roles for non-coding RNAs in the immediate-early response. PLoS Computational Biology 2015; 11:e1004217

Forrest AR, Kawaji H, Rehli M, Baillie JK, de Hoon MJ, Haberle V, Lassmann T, Kulakovskiy IV, Lizio M, Itoh M, Andersson R, Mungall CJ, Meehan TF, Schmeier S, Bertin N, Jørgensen M, Dimont E, Arner E, Schmidl C, Schaefer U, Medvedeva YA, Plessy C, Vitezic M, Severin J, Semple CA, Ishizu Y, Young RS, Francescatto M, Alam I, Albanese D, Altschuler GM, Arakawa T, Archer JA, Arner P, Babina M, Rennie S, Balwierz PJ, Beckhouse AG, Pradhan-Bhatt S, Blake JA, Blumenthal A, Bodega B, Bonetti A, Briggs J, Brombacher F, Burroughs AM, Califano A, Cannistraci CV, Carbajo D, Chen Y, Chierici M, Ciani Y, Clevers HC, Dalla E, Davis CA, Detmar M, Diehl AD, Dohi T, Drabløs F, Edge AS, Edinger M, Ekwall K, Endoh M, Enomoto H, Fagiolini M, Fairbairn L, Fang H, Farach-Carson MC, Faulkner GJ, Favorov AV, Fisher ME, Frith MC, Fujita R, Fukuda S, Furlanello C, Furuno M, Furusawa J, Geijtenbeek TB, Gibson A, Gingeras T, Goldowitz D, Gough J, Guhl S, Guler R, Gustincich S, Ha TJ, Hamaguchi M, Hara M, Harbers M, Harshbarger J, Hasegawa A, Hasegawa Y, Hashimoto T, Herlyn M, Hitchens KJ, Shannan J, Sui H, Hofmann OM, Hoof I, Hori F, Huminiecki L, Iida K, Ikawa T, Jankovic BR, Jia H, Joshi A, Jurman G, Kaczkowski B, Kai C, Kaida K, Kaiho A, Kajiyama K, Kanamori-Katayama M, Kasianov AS, Kasukawa T, Katayama S, Kato S, Kawaguchi S, Kawamoto H, Kawamura YI, Kawashima T, Kempfle JS, Kenna TJ, Kere J, Khachigian LM, et al. A promoter level mammalian expression atlas. Nature 2014;507:462-70

Xie J, Zhang S, Hu Y, Li D, Cui J, Xue J, Zhang G, Khachigian LM, Wong J, Sun L, Wang M. Regulatory roles of c-jun in H5N1 influenza virus replication and host inflammation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Molecular Basis of Disease 2014; 1842(12 Pt A):2479-88

Cho EA, Moloney FJ, Cai H, Au-Yeung A, China C, Scolyer RA, Yosufi B, Raftery MJ, Deng JZ, Morton SW, Hammond PT, Arkenau HT, Damian DL, Francis DJ, Chesterman CN, Barnetson RStC, Halliday GM, Khachigian LM. Safety and tolerability of an intratumorally injected DNAzyme, Dz13, in patients with nodular basal-cell carcinoma: a Phase 1 first-in-human trial (DISCOVER). The Lancet 2013;381:1835-43

Yee GPC, de Souza P, Khachigian LM. Current and potential treatments for cervical cancer. Current Cancer Drug Targets 2013;13:205-20

Li Y, Bhindi R, Deng ZJ, Morton SW, Hammond PT, Khachigian LM. Inhibition of vein graft stenosis with a c-jun targeting DNAzyme in a cationic liposomal formulation containing 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine. International Journal of Cardiology 2013;168:3659-3664

Sanchez-Guerrero E, Jo SR, Chong BH, Khachigian LM. EGFR and the complexity of receptor crosstalk in the cardiovascular system. Current Molecular Medicine 2013; 13:3-12

Sheahan AV, Phillips PA, Khachigian LM. Therapeutic perspectives on pancreatic cancer. Current Cancer Drug Targets 2013;13:400-10

Cai H, Santiago FS, Prado-Lourenco L, Wang B, Patrikakis M, Davenport MP, Maghzal GJ, Stocker R, Parish CR, Chong BH, Lieschke GJ, Wong TW, Chesterman CN, Francis DJ, Moloney FJ, Barnetson RStC, Halliday GM, Khachigian LM. DNAzyme targeting c-jun suppresses skin cancer growth. Science Translational Medicine 2012;4:139ra82

Sanchez-Guerrero E, Chen E, Kockx M, An SW, Chong BH, Khachigian LM. IL-1beta signals through the EGF receptor and activates Egr-1 through MMP-ADAM. PLoS ONE 2012;7:e39811

Chan CWS, Kaplan W, Parish CR, Khachigian LM. Reduced retinal microvascular density, improved forepaw reach, comparative microarray and gene set enrichment analysis with c-jun targeting DNA enzyme. PLoS ONE 2012;7:e39160

Malabanan K, Nath A, Khachigian LM. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB mediates cell migration through Induction of activation transcription factor-4 and tenascin C. American Journal of Pathology 2012;180:2590-7

Zhang N, Chan CS, Sanchez-Guerrero E, Khachigian LM. Repression of PDGF-R-alpha after cellular injury involves TNF-alpha, formation of a c-Fos-YY1 complex and negative regulation by HDAC. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology 2012;302:C1590-8

Ishii H, Hulett MD, Li JM, Santiago FS, Parish CR, Khachigian LM. Yin yang-1 inhibits tumor cell growth and inhibits p21WAF1/Cip1 complex formation with cdk4 and cyclin D1. International Journal of Oncology 2012;40:1575-80

Little PJ, Getachew R, Sanchez-Guerrero E, Khachigian LM, Zheng W, Ballinger ML, Osman N.  Genistein inhibits PDGF-stimulated proteoglycan synthesis in vascular smooth muscle without blocking PDGF-beta receptor phosphorylation. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 2012;525:25-31

Bhindi R, Fahmy RG, McMahon AC, Khachigian LM, Lowe HC. Intracoronary delivery of DNAzymes targeting human EGR-1 reduces infarct size following myocardial ischaemia reperfusion. Journal of Pathology 2012;227:157-64

Perdomo J, Jiang X-M, Khachigian LM, Chong BH. SUMOylation regulates the transcriptional repression activity of FOG-2 and its association with GATA-4. PLoS ONE 2012;7:e50637

Hitchins M, Rapkins R, Chau-To K, Srivastava S, Wong J, Khachigian LM, Polly P, Goldblatt J, Ward RL. Dominantly inherited constitutional epigenetic silencing of MLH1 in a cancer-affected family is linked to a single nucleotide variant within the 5'UTR. Cancer Cell 2011;20:200-13

Chen JB, Liu M, Parish CR, Chong BH, Khachigian LM. Nuclear import of early growth response-1 involves importin-7 and the novel nuclear localization signal serine-proline-serine.  International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 2011;43:905-12

Li D, Bhindi R, Khachigian LM. Recent developments in drug eluting stents. Journal of Molecular Medicine 2011;89:545-53

Truong A, Wong TY, Khachigian LM. Emerging therapeutic approaches in the management of retinal angiogenesis and edema. Journal of Molecular Medicine 2011; 89:343-61

Beck K, Wu BJ, Ni J, Santiago FS, Malabanan K, Li C, Wang Y, Khachigian LM, Stocker R. Interplay between heme oxygenase-1 and the multifunctional transcription factor Yin Yang 1.  Circulation Research 2010;107:1490-7

Liang SX, Pinkevych M, Khachigian LM, Parish CR, Davenport MP, Chong BH. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia: Development of a novel NOD/SCID mouse model to evaluate clearance of circulating platelets by drug-dependent antibodies and the efficacy of IVIG. Blood 2010;116:1958-60

Chan JC, Prado-Lourenco L, Khachigian LM, Di Bartolo B, Bennett MR, Kavurma MM.  TRAIL promotes VSMC proliferation and neointima formation after arterial injury in a FGF-2, Sp1 and NFkappaB-dependent manner. Circulation Research 2010;106:1061-71

Wang B, Chen J, Santiago FS, Janes M, Kavurma MM, Chong BH, Pimanda JE, Khachigian LM. Phosphorylation and acetylation of histone H3 and autoregulation by EGR-1 mediate IL-1beta induction of EGR-1 transcription.  Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 2010;30:536-45

Luo X, Cai H, Ni J, Bhindi R, Lowe HC, Chesterman CN, Khachigian LM. c-Jun DNAzymes inhibit myocardial inflammation, ROS generation, infarct size, and improve cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 2009;29:1836-42

Tan NY, Khachigian LM. Sp1 phosphorylation and its regulation of gene transcription.  Molecular and Cellular Biology 2009;29:2483-8

Abdel-Malak NA, Mayaki D, Khachigian LM, Hussain SNA. Early growth response-1 regulates angiopoeitin-1-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 2009;29:209-16

Malabanan K, Kanellakis P, Bobik A, Khachigian LM. ATF-4 induced by FGF-2 regulates VEGF-A transcription in vascular SMCs and mediates intimal thickening in rat arteries following balloon injury. Circulation Research 2008;103:378-87

Tan N, Midgley VC, Kavurma MM, Santiago FS, Luo X, Peden R, Fahmy RG, Berndt MC, Molloy MP, Khachigian LM. Angiotensin II-inducible platelet-derived growth factor-D transcription requires specific Ser/Thr residues in the second zinc finger region of Sp1. Circulation Research 2008;102:e38-51

Santiago FS, Ishii H, Shafi S, Khurana R, Kanellakis P, Bhindi R, Ramirez M, Bobik A, Martin J, Chesterman CN, Zachary IC, Khachigian LM. Yin yang-1 inhibits intimal thickening by repressing p21WAF1/Cip1 transcription and p21WAF1/Cip1-Cdk4-Cyclin D1 assembly. Circulation Research 2007;101:146-55

Fahmy RG, Waldman A, Zhang G, Mitchell A, Tedla N, Cai H, Chesterman CN, Geczy CR, Perry MA, Khachigian LM. Suppression of vascular permeability and inflammation by targeting of the transcription factor c-Jun. Nature Biotechnology 2006;24:856-863

Liu MY, Eyries M, Zhang C, Santiago FS, Khachigian LM. Inducible platelet-derived growth factor D-chain expression by angiotensin II and hydrogen peroxide involves transcriptional regulation by Ets-1 and Sp1. Blood 2006;107:2322-9

Santiago FS, Khachigian LM. Ets-1 stimulates platelet-derived growth factor A-chain gene transcription and vascular smooth muscle cell growth via co-operative interactions with Sp1.  Circulation Research 2004;95:479-487

Zhang G, Dass CR, Sumithran E, Di Girolamo NR, Sun LQ, Khachigian LM. Effect of deoxyribozymes targeting c-Jun on solid tumor growth and angiogenesis in rodents.  Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2004;96:683-696

Fahmy RG, Dass CR, Sun LQ, Chesterman CN, Khachigian LM. Zinc finger transcription factor Egr-1 supports FGF-dependent angiogenesis during neovascularization and tumor growth.  Nature Medicine 2003;9:1026-1032

Francis DJ, Parish CR, McGarry M, Santiago FS, Lowe HC, Brown KJ, Bingley J, Hayward IP, Cowden WB, Campbell JH, Campbell GR, Chesterman CN, Khachigian LM.  Blockade of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal thickening after balloon injury by the sulfated oligosaccharide PI-88: phosphomannopentaose sulfate directly binds FGF-2, blocks cellular signaling and inhibits proliferation.  Circulation Research 2003;92:e70-77

Khachigian LM, Fahmy RG, Zhang G, Bobryshev YV, Kaniaros A. c-Jun regulates vascular smooth muscle cell growth and neointima formation after arterial injury: inhibition by a novel DNAzyme targeting c-Jun. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2002;277:22985-22991

Rafty LA, Santiago FS, Khachigian LM. NF1/X represses PDGF A-chain transcription by interacting with Sp1 and antagonizing Sp1 occupancy of the promoter. EMBO Journal 2002;21:334-343

Lowe HC, Fahmy RG, Kavurma MM, Baker A, Chesterman CN, Khachigian LM. Catalytic oligodeoxynucleotides define a critical regulatory role for early growth response factor-1 in the porcine coronary artery model of in-stent restenosis.  Circulation Research 2001;89:670-677

Santiago FS, Lowe HC, Kavurma MM, Chesterman CN, Atkins DG, Khachigian LM.  Novel DNA enzyme targeting NGFI-A mRNA inhibits vascular smooth muscle proliferation and regrowth after injury.  Nature Medicine 1999;5:1264-1269

Khachigian LM, Lindner V, Williams AJ, Collins T.  Egr-1-induced endothelial gene expression: a common theme in vascular injury. Science 1996; 271:1427-1431

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UNSW Medicine

Contact

+61 2 9385 2537
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