Emerging infectious diseases, infection, biosecurity, biodefense, influenza, vaccines, adult vaccination, elderly vaccination, epidemiology, outbreaks, epidemic control, pandemics, travel and border control, HPV, pneumococcal disease, bioterrorism, smallpox, monkeypox, anthrax, Ebola, viral haemorrhagic fevers, MERS coronavirus, COVID-19, health security, health intelligence, modelling, clinical trials, study design, big data, precision harm, artificial intelligence for epidemic detection.
Fields of Research (FoR)Infectious Diseases, Epidemiology, Aged Health Care, Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified, Genomics, Medical Infection Agents (incl. Prions), Preventive Medicine, Other Artificial Intelligence
Professor Raina MacIntyre (MBBS Hons 1, FRACP, FAFPHM, M App Epid, PhD) is NHMRC Leadership 3 Fellow and Professor of Global Biosecurity. She heads the Biosecurity Program at the Kirby Institute, which conducts research in epidemiology, vaccinology, bioterrorism prevention, mathematical modelling, genetic epidemiology, public health and clinical trials in infectious diseases. As of the start of 2023, she is the #1 ranked researcher in the...view more
Professor Raina MacIntyre (MBBS Hons 1, FRACP, FAFPHM, M App Epid, PhD) is NHMRC Leadership 3 Fellow and Professor of Global Biosecurity. She heads the Biosecurity Program at the Kirby Institute, which conducts research in epidemiology, vaccinology, bioterrorism prevention, mathematical modelling, genetic epidemiology, public health and clinical trials in infectious diseases. As of the start of 2023, she is the #1 ranked researcher in the world on Respiratory Protective Devices and highly ranked in Smallpox and several other areas of infectious diseases (Expertscape). Her H index is 75/56 (GS/Scopus) with >23,000/>11,100 citations (GS/Scopus). FWCI: 3.69 since 2011, 4.7 since 2020, 30.46 for topic influenza and 18.8 citations per publication in the past 5 years. She has 21.4% of her publications in the top 10% most cited papers (Scopus) in the past 5 years. In 2020 a quote from her invited editorial on masks was featured on the cover of Lancet (Vol 195 June 27 2020), reflecting her global recognition as an expert in masks. Lancet Infectious Diseases published a profile of her in 2021 (VOL 21:4, P468, APRIL 01, 2021).
Her research falls under 4 areas: Personal protective equipment, Vaccinology, Epidemic response and emerging infectious diseases, and Bioterrorism prevention. She is a dual-specialist physician with training in epidemiology and modelling. Her research is underpinned by her clinical training, vaccine program experience and extensive field outbreak investigation and surveillance experience. She is currently on the WHO Technical Advisory Group on COVID-19 Vaccine Composition (TAG-CO-VAC), WHO SAGE ad-hoc Working Group on Smallpox and Monkeypox, and is the focal point for WHO GOARN in the ARM Network and UNSW GOARN member groups. She has developed an automated rapid epidemic intelligence platform, EPIWATCH, which uses AI to scan open source data for early epidemic signals. She leads a team of analysts, epidemiologists and software engineers to further develop EPIWATCH into a global hub of epidemic detection, prevention and mitigation, with a suite of real-time decision support and risk analysis tools. A philanthropic gift from Vitalik Buterin’s Balvi Filantropic Fund in 2022 has allowed her to expand on EPIWATCH globally in low and middle income countries, making EPIWATCH accessible and equitable. This is called the Shiba Inu EPIWATCH OSINT project and is focused on open-sourcing of EPIWATCH.
Raina has a 31-year track record in pandemics, epidemic infections, serious emerging infections, vaccines and control of respiratory viruses. She has worked as a clinician in hospitals, in health departments on outbreak control, and her PhD research was on screening, surveillance and contact tracing for TB and involved detailed tracking of the risk of infection in high risk contacts. She worked for 15 years at the National Centre for Immunisation Research, and has conducted many vaccine clinical trials and has expertise in vaccinology and vaccine programs, especially vaccination of adults, at-risk and immunosuppressed populations.
She is a graduate of the Australian Field Epidemiology Training program, the MAE at ANU, and has extensive experience in shoe-leather epidemiology of infectious diseases outbreaks. Her in-depth understanding of the science of outbreak investigation draws from this experience combined with her academic training through a Masters and PhD in Epidemiology. She is best known for research in the detailed understanding of the transmission dynamics and prevention of infectious diseases, particularly respiratory pathogens such as influenza, tuberculosis, bioterrorism agents and vaccine-preventable infections. She has led the largest body of research internationally on face masks and respirators in health care workers. Her research has been influential in informing guidelines for health workers on PPE. She has extensive expertise in vaccination programs, with a particular interest in adult vaccination with a focus on the elderly and vaccines for bioterrorism. Specific vaccination interests include influenza, pneumococcal disease, HPV, smallpox, herpes zoster and SARS-CoV2. She has done a body of work on vaccine effectiveness of influenza vaccine against myocardial infarction. She led a NHMRC Centre for Research Excellence in immunisation for high risk populations, a vaccine research centre focused on adult and high-risk group vaccination. Her face mask research has focused on health care workers and hospitals. She does cross-disciplinary research on aerosol dynamics and movement of respiratory droplets, in collaboration with aerospace and fluid mechanics engineers at UNSW, and on development of novel masks and re-usable materials. She has also done research on using risk-analysis methods for analysing the origins of emerging infectious diseases outbreaks and is a leader in new approaches to biosecurity through cross-disciplinary response and emerging threats to health security. She is involved in several research studies on COVID-19. She also designed and co-convened a course, Bioterrorism and Health Intelligence, taken by students at UNSW and ASU. She has led a smallpox pandemic simulation (Exercise Mataika, 2018 and Pacific Eclipse, 2019) in Australia and the US, which underpinned by modelling research and covers issues such as surveillance, diagnosis, health system capacity, mass quarantine, maritime transport and infected cruise ships, travel bans and the foundations of epidemic control. An online version of this, Unknown Biothreat Simulation, can be done as a self-paced exercise.
She currently leads a cross-disciplinary NHMRC Centre for Research Excellence, BREATHE, on mitigation of airborne threats to health. She led a Centre for Research Excellence in Epidemic Response, ISER from 2016-2020. She has over 450 publications in peer-reviewed journals. Her passion for field epidemiology led her to co-found the ARM network for Australian outbreak response. She is currently on the Global Accreditation Board for TEPHINET, the network of global field epidemiology programs.
She also has an interest in the ethics of medicine, and specifically in dual-use research of concern, has been on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) committee for developing Guidelines For Responsible Conduct in Veterinary Research Identifying, Assessing and Managing Dual Use Research, and is a member of Biosafety Now. She has research collaborations across the PLuS Alliance, with researchers from Arizona State University and Kings College London, and has an adjunct appointments at The College of Public Affairs and Community Solutions and the College of Health Solutions at ASU. She started a new cross-disciplinary journal, published by UNSW, Global Biosecurity, launched in February 2019. She published her first book, Dark Winter - An insider’s guide to pandemics and biosecurity in 2022, which conveys her knowledge and concerns about biosecurity in lay language for non-expert readers.
See Google scholar profile
o She won many career awards including the Sir Henry Wellcome Medal and Prize, from the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States in 2007 for her work on a risk-priority scoring system for category A bioterrorism agents; the Eureka Prize for Leadership and Innovation in Science in 2022 and the highest national award in infectious diseases, the Frank Fenner Award for Research in Infectious Diseases in 2003. She was a finalist in the 2021, 2020 and 2017 Eureka Prizes. In 2021 she received The Women’s Agenda Leadership Award - Frontline Hero and UNSW Medicine Value in Action Award for Impact. She won the CAPHIA Research Team Prize in 2017, The Public Health Association of Australia National Immunisation Achievement Award in 2014, and also the Peter Baume Public Health Impact Prize in 2014. In 2012 she won the UNSW Medicine Dean's award for outstanding achievement, the highest award in the faculty of Medicine. She has previously held a NHMRC PhD scholarship and a NHMRC Career Development Award, and been a Harkness Fellow. She spent her Harkness fellowship studying the transmission of tuberculosis in prisons in the US, at Johns Hopkins University.
o She has published the largest body of clinical trials of face masks in prevention of respiratory infections for health workers internationally, which has been a major new contribution to knowledge for pandemic planning.
o She is an expert in outbreak detection and mitigation, including that arising from bioterrorism and biological warfare, with a deep understanding of epidemic control at the population level. She is a leading global expert on smallpox.
o She initiated and led the creation, funding and training of the Network of Infectious Diseases Modellers of Australia through a NHMRC CBG in Population Health. This is a national network spanning three states and five Universities, which has had a prolific research output. She is interested in applying risk analysis methods to public health.
o She leads a large program of vaccination clinical research, including studies in frail elderly vaccinology and in immunosuppressed populations such as bone marrow transplant recipients.
Memberships & Professional Activities
- WHO SAGE Ad Hoc Working Group on Smallpox and Mpox (2022)
- WHO Technical Advisory Group on COVID-19 Vaccine Composition (TAG-CO-VAC) 2021-current (member)
United States National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine Committee on public health interventions and countermeasures for advancing pandemic and seasonal influenza preparedness and response. Member, 2021.
- Member, NHMRC National COVID-19 Health and Research Advisory Committee 2020-2021
- Member, NSW Health COVID-19 Vaccine Advisory Group 2020-2021
- Member, Group of 8 advisory group on social distancing for COVID-19, 2020
- Member, Global Accreditation Board, TEPHINET 2017-current
- Member, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Ad Hoc Committee on Guidelines for Managing Dual Use Research 2018.
- Fellow, Royal Society of NSW (elected 2016)
- Member, Australian Infection Prevention & Control Ebola Expert Advisory Group - 2014
- Member, WHO SAGE Committee on Varicella and Zoster Vaccine (2013-2014).
- Member, US National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, Committee on Respiratory Protection for Healthcare Workers Against Novel H1N1 Influenza A, 2009.
- Member of Council, Faculty of Public Health Medicine of Australia (2014-18)
- Member, Word Organization of Medical Editors (WAME) (2003-current)
- Member, Australian Society for Infectious Diseases (1998-2013)
- Member, Public Health Association of Australia - PHAA (current)
- One Health Special Interest Group committee, PHAA (current)
- Fellow, Royal Australasian College of Physicians
- Fellow, Australian Faculty of Public Health Medicine
- Member, Specialist Influenza Advisory Group to the Chief Medical Officer of Australia, 2007-2010
- Member, Pandemic Influenza Advisory Group to the Chief Medical Officer of Australia, 2007-2010
- Member, Association of Military Surgeons of the United States (2007-2009)
- Member, Infectious Diseases Subgroup of the Detention Health Advisory Group, Australia, 2007-.2008
- Member, National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Expert Advisory Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (EAGAR) (2005-2008).
- Member, Hepatitis B working party of the Ministerial Advisory Committee on AIDS, STDs and Hepatitis.
- Member, Working Parties for the Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation: Influenza, Hepatitis A; Pneumococcal disease; Varicella zoster; Rotavirus
Epidemiology and Infection
Vaccine Council of 100
2023-2027. NHMRC Investigator grant, L3
2022-2024 MRFF Grant. - Aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 experimentally and in an intensive care setting
2022 - Balvi Filantropic Fund (Vitalik Buterin) gift of $5.39 million for EPIWATCH.
2021-2026 NHMRC Centres for Research Excellence Grant BREATHE - mitigation of airborne threats to health. R MacIntyre, D Heslop, C Doolan, C De Silva, G Marks, H Skouteris
2021-2022 MRFF Frontiers Stage 1 grant - EPIWATCH rapid epidemic intelligence. R MacIntyre, D Heslop, C Paris, S Lim, H Paik, L Yao.
2020-2021 MRFF Research Grants A randomised controlled trial of mask use in control of respiratory outcomes during bushfire season MacIntyre, Shah, Chugtai, Seale
2019-2020 RIS Grant "Volumetric LED-based Flow Diagnostic System" C De Silva, C Doolan, T Barber, D Moreau, M Greeb, M Keevers, CR MacIntyre.
2019-2020 anthrax modelling (Commonwealth of Australia government grant by competitive tender) CR MacIntyre, D Heslop, C Doolan
2018-2023 NHMRC Principal Research Fellowship grant number 1137582
2018-2019 IAMI trial, multicentre RCT. MacIntyre CR (Australian PI) on a trial led by O Frobert in Sweden
2018-2019 Influenza modelling studies. MacIntyre CR (industry grants, Seqirus and Sanofi)
2018 Modelling of smallpox. MacIntyre CR (government grant)
2016 NHMRC Centre for Research Excellence. R MacIntyre, M Kirk, A Clements, P Komesaroff, D Heslop, Q Wang, S Sakar, P Debarro, W Rawlinson, M Baker. Intergrated Systems for Epidemic Response.
2015 NHMRC Project grant. R MacIntyre, L Gardner, A Heywood. “Real time models to inform prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases
2015 NHMRC Project grant. A Newall, R MacIntyre, R Menzies, J Wood, P Beutels. Economic evaluation of alternative pneumococcal vaccination strategies
2012 NHMRC Project Grant #1048180. B Liu, A Newall, R MacIntyre, P McIntyre. Providing the evidence to guide adult immunisation strategies: a novel approach using a large prospective cohort study and record linkage.
2011 NHMRC Centre for Research Excellence in Population Health
Investigators: CR MacIntyre, PB McIntyre, R Booy, N Woods, C Jones, J kaldor, P Beutels, R Menzies, D Dwyer.
Subject: Immunisation in under studied and special risk populations: closing the gap in knowledge through a multidisciplinary approach
2011 ARC DP120100189
Investigators: CR MacIntyre, N Zwar, H Worth, A Heywood, H Seale, M Sheikh, M Smith.
Title: "Travellers visiting friends and relatives: new approaches to understanding and reducing infectious disease risks"
2009 NHMRC Urgent H1N1 influenza 2009 grant # 630787
Investigators Prof CR MacIntyre; Prof DE Dwyer; Dr H Seale
Subject Efficacy of face masks against H1N1 swine influenza
2009-2012 ARC Linkage Grant # LP0990749
Investigators Prof CR MacIntyre; Prof DE Dwyer; A/Prof PT Nga; Prof NM Ferguson; A/Prof M McLaws; Prof L Maher; Dr H Seale; Dr JG Wood; Dr AT Newall
Subject Economic, social and cross cultural issues in non pharmaceutical protection of front line responders to pandemic influenza and emerging infections.
2007-2008 ARC Discovery Grant #DP0773987
Investigators CR MacIntyre; AJ Plant; RE Watkins
Subject Who acquires infection from whom across international borders? New approaches for control of emerging infections through understanding travel patterns
2006-2009 ARC Linkage Grant #LP0668279
Subject Economic and Social Benefits of treating and preventing influenza in Aged Care Facilities
Investigators R Booy; CR MacIntyre; D Dwyer; RI Lindley
2006 NHMRC Strategic Research Grant for Potential Avian Influenza-Induced Pandemic — Urgent Research #373646
Subject Pandemic influenza: developing a model to enhance preparedness in the business sector
Investigators Plant, Aileen; MacIntyre, Raina; Merianos, Angela; Donovan, Robert; Watkins Rochelle.
2006 NHMRC Strategic Research Grant for Potential Avian Influenza-Induced Pandemic —Urgent Research #410224
Subject Assessment of interventions for controlling pandemic influenza and determining data needs to inform these assessments
Chief investigators Becker, Niels G; Glass, Kathryn; Mathews, John; Dwyer, Dominic; Nolan, Terrence; MacIntyre, Raina; Barendregt, Jan; Barnes, Belinda; Caley, Peter; McCaw, James; McVernon, Jodie; Philp, David; Wood, James
2005-2009 NHMRC Capacity Building Grant in Population Health #358425
Subject Mathematical modeling of infectious diseases
Investigators MacIntyre CR, Becker N, Law M, Plant AJ, Nolan T, Brown GV
2005-2008 NHMRC Project grant #352337
Subject Clinical trial of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in hospitalized geriatric patients.
Investigators MacIntyre CR, Lindley R, McIntyre PB, Sullivan J, Gilbert GL.
2005-2008 NHMRC Centre for Clinical Research Excellence #264625
Subject Interdisciplinary clinical and health ethics research and training to improve outcomes in immunosuppressed haematology patients
Investigators Sorrell T, Bradstock K, Kerridge I, Gilbert GL, Gottlieb D, MacIntyre CR, Dwyer D, Ankeny R.
Location Westmead Hospital and NSW Bone Marror Transplant Network
2006-2007 Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care, Office of Health Protection grant
Subject A Cluster Randomised, Controlled clinical trial of surgical masks and particulate respirators in households for Control of Respiratory Virus Transmission.
Investigators MacIntyre CR, Booy R, Plant AJ, Dwyer D, Wang H, Burgess M, Browne, G, Seale H, Iskander M.
MBBS (1st Class Honours) University of Sydney 1988
Master of Applied Epidemiology, Australian National University 1992
PhD (Epidemiology) Australian National University 1998
Fellow, Royal Australasian College of Physicians (FRACP) 1994
Fellow, Australian Faculty of Public Health Medicine (FAFPHM) 1995
2023 Finalist (EPIWATCH) India Australia Business & Community Alliance Awards
2022 Winner (EPIWATCH), AusInnovations Award for Excellence – People's Choice
2022 President’s Award for Excellent Service to The Health of The Nation. Australian Federation of Medical Women.
2022 Eureka Prize for Leadership in Science and Innovation (Department of Defence Prize)
2021 The Women’s Agenda Leadership Award - Frontline Hero
2020, 2021. Finalist, Australian Eureka Prizes
2017 Finalist, Australian Eureka Prizes
2017 CAPHIA Research Team Prize
2016 Elected a Fellow of The NSW Royal Society
2014 Public Health Association of Australia, National Immunisation Achievement Award.
2014 Peter Baume Public Health Impact Prize
2014 Certificate of Recognition Award to The NHMRC Centre for Research Excellence in immunization from the NSW Refugee Health Service during 2014 Refugee Week, for Highly valued contribution to the promotion of health and wellbeing of refugees and humanitarian entrants.
2012 Deans Award for Outstanding Achievement, UNSW Medicine. This is the highest award made by the Faculty of Medicine in recognition of significant achievements, usually over a prolonged period of time, by academic staff in the areas of education, research and community activity. This award recognises achievements of the highest standard that give great credit to the individual and to the Faculty.
2007 Sir Henry Wellcome Medal and Prize from the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States of America. Unsolicited award for the following work: MacIntyre CR, Secull A, Lane M, Plant AJ. Development of a risk priority scores for category A bioterrorism agents as an aid for public health policy. Military Medicine. 171(7):589-94, 2006 Jul.
2004 Robert & Elizabeth Albert Study Grant, Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
2003 Frank Fenner Award (Australian Society for Infectious Diseases) for Advanced Research in Infectious Diseases
2001 Royal Australasian College of Physicians, Best poster prize, Division of Adult Medicine
1997 ASID/ICI (Australian Society for Infectious Diseases) travelling scholarship
1995 AEA (Australian Epidemiologic Association) travelling scholarship for outstanding new researchers
1992 Australian Faculty of Public Health Medicine (Victoria) – best advanced trainee presentation.
Undergraduate Medicine and other Prizes - Sydney University
1984 A C Stephen Prize for English prose
1985 David Sugerman Prize for Pathology
1985 Allan Douglas Gillies Memorial Prize for Pathology
1985 Parkinson Memorial Prize for Pathology
1988 1st class honours in medicine
1982 Dux (top ranked student in HSC) of Sydney Girl’s High School
1979 & 1980 City of Sydney Eisteddfod medal for debating
1978 & 1979 UNICEF Art awards.
My Research Activities
The Biosecurity Program is focused on global risk analysis, detection, prevention, mitigation, response and control of emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorism. We conduct research on emerging infectious diseases, rapid epidemic surveillance, field response, bioterrorism, bio-intelligence, and health security in a changing biotechnology landscape. We research the rapid detection and prevention of these threats, including open source intelligence and early warnings from EPIWATCH. Our research includes prevention by both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical means such as personal protective equipment and vaccines. The program engages widely with stakeholders from all disciplines involved in large scale epidemic response, such as health, field epidemiology, emergency management, defence, law enforcement, legal and ethics experts. We are working on several research studies of COVID-19 including transmission, modelling and epidemiology. We are continuing our work on face masks and respirators in prevention of infection, and also in prevention of bushfire smoke related health effects.
The re-emergence of smallpox is a credible threat due to advances in synthetic biology and availability of public methods for synthesis of orthopoxviruses, We are doing modelling research on the control of smallpox through various public health interventions and on re-emergence of monkeypox.
My Research Supervision
Areas of supervision
ILP, PhD, Masters
Infectious diseases epidemiology, modelling, clinical research, epidemic infections, vaccines, influenza, COVID-19, MERS CoV, emerging infections, risk analysis
PhD, ILP, Masters
Panel discussion at The JP Getty Museum, Los Angeles - Is civilisation on the verge of collapse? Public event in Los Angeles, USA.
Are we ready for pandemics (ABC) interview
Podcast "Data, disruption and unnatural pandemics". AGSM Activation Event Oct 11 2016
Course convenor and designer: Bioterrorism and Health Intelligence
Guest lecturer and course designer: Infectious Diseases Intelligence
Imagine. COVID detected before it spread worldwide through an early signal for severe pneumonia. The epidemic stopped in it’s tracks in 2019 and consigned to the archives of rare, serious outbreaks.
Title: BREATHE - mitigating airborne threats to health
Airborne threats such as infections, chemicals or bushfire exposures can harm human health. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of indoor environments for…
What are we studying?
The aim of this research is to determine whether the use of surgical masks and P2 masks protects people with asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis or bronchiectasis from the effects of smoke exposure during bushfire season in Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria. We will compare exposure reduction methods including surgical masks, P2 masks facemasks and avoiding outdoor activities. There is no clinical efficacy data to support the choice and use of facemasks, P2 masks or staying indoors for protection against…
This is a PLuS Alliance research project, to develop tools for risk prediction of a pandemic emerging from avian influenza. This has led to development of new methodological approaches and several studies in progress with the team of Raina MacIntyre (UNSW), Matthew Scotch (ASU) and Kathleen Steinhofel (KCL).…
This proposed research addresses the need for real-time tracking of emerging infectious diseases, both spatially and temporally, to inform international and national outbreak response teams, aid in the implementation of real-time containment strategies and ultimately the timely control of emerging infectious diseases.
This study will determine whether mask use by people with influenza-like-illness (ILI) while at home protects other family members from respiratory infections. Interventions that target the sick rather than well have the potential to be better utilised, so this study will provide important data to inform infection control both in hospitals and in the community
This research will investigate the contribution to the burden of infectious diseases in Australia from travel by migrant Australians who visit friends and relatives in their country of birth. Currently, little is known about the burden of travel-associated infections or the barriers to preventative pre-travel health practices amongst migrant travellers, particularly in the Australian context. This study will quantify modifiable behaviours, motivations and risk perceptions of migrant Australian travellers. This project will provide the necessary evidence to guide an effective response to…
This NHMRC CRE in Population Health Research commenced in 2012 and is focused on immunisation for vulnerable or marginalised population subgroups at increased disease risk. These risk groups suffer disproportionate morbidity and mortality, either because of less robust immunity or because of co-morbidities and environmental factors. Research to inform immunisation policy and practice in these groups usually remains beyond the scope of funding from government or industry, and as such is the focus of our CRE.
We are committed to capacity building of future leaders, post-doctoral…
See full video at: https://www.zocalopublicsquare.org/category/events/video-archive/?postId=103247